With continually increasing demand on the world’s fossil fuel resources, concerns for energy independence and security are increasing, and the impacts of global climate change are becoming more evident, it is essential to find ways to reduce energy load, increase efficiency, and maximize the use of renewable energy sources in federal facilities. Improving the energy performance of existing buildings is important to increasing our energy independence. Government and private sector organizations are increasingly committing to building and operating net zero energy buildings as a way to significantly reduce our dependence on fossil fuel-derived energy.
On an annual basis, buildings in the United States consume 36% of America’s energy and 65% of its electricity. Furthermore, buildings emit 30% of the carbon dioxide (the primary greenhouse gas associated with climate change), 49% of the sulfur dioxide, and 25% of the nitrogen oxides found in the air. (Source: EPA) Currently, the vast majority of this energy is produced from non-renewable, fossil fuel resources. With uncertainty over the availability of fossil fuels into the future, rising demand for fossil fuels, rising concerns over energy security (both for general supply and specific needs of facilities), and the potential that greenhouse gases may be negatively affecting the world’s climate, it is essential to find ways to reduce load, increase efficiency, and utilize renewable fuel resources in facilities of all types.
During the facility design and development process, building projects must have a comprehensive, integrated perspective that seeks to:
- Reduce heating, cooling, and lighting loads through climate-responsive design and conservation practices;
- Employ renewable energy sources such as daylighting, passive solar heating, photovoltaics, geothermal, and groundwater cooling;
- Specify efficient HVAC and lighting systems that consider part-load conditions and utility interface requirements;
- Optimize building performance by employing energy modeling programs and optimize system control strategies by using occupancy sensors CO2 sensors and other air quality alarms;
- Monitor project performance through a policy of commissioning, metering, annual reporting, and periodic re-commissioning; and
- Integrate water saving technologies to reduce the energy burden of providing potable water.
Apply this process to the reuse, renovation or repair of existing buildings as well.
Reduce Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Loads through Climate-Responsive Design and Conservation Practices
Use passive solar design; orient, size, and specify windows; and locate landscape elements with solar geometry and building load requirements in mind.
Use high-performance building envelopes; select walls, roofs, and other assemblies based on long-term insulation, air barrier performance, and durability requirements.
Consider an integrated landscape design that provides deciduous trees for summer shading, appropriate planting for windbreaks, and attractive outdoor spaces so that occupants wish to be outdoors—thereby reducing the occupant driven additional heat load to the building.
Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources
Renewable energy sources include solar water heating, photovoltaic (PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal. Use of renewable energy can increase energy security and reduce dependence on imported fuels, while reducing or eliminating greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use. Consider solar thermal for domestic hot water and heating purposes.
Evaluate the use of building scale to take advantage of on-site renewable energy technologies such as daylighting, solar water heating, and geothermal heat pumps.
Consider the use of larger scale, on-site renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind turbines.
Evaluate purchasing electricity generated from renewable sources or low polluting sources such as natural gas.
Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems
Use energy efficient HVAC equipment and systems that meet or exceed 10 CFR 434. For Department of Defense facilities, refer to the standards within UFC 1-200-02 High Performance and Sustainable Building Requirements.
Use lighting systems that consume less than 1 watt/square foot for ambient lighting.
Use Energy Star® approved and/or FEMP-designated energy efficient products or products that meet or exceed Department of Energy standards.
Evaluate energy recovery systems that pre-heat or pre-cool incoming ventilation air in commercial and institutional buildings.
Investigate the use of integrated generation and delivery systems, such as co-generation, fuel cells, and off-peak thermal storage. See also WBDG Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Microturbines.
Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies
Employ energy modeling programs early in the design process.
Use sensors to control loads based on occupancy, schedule and/or the availability of natural resources such as daylight or natural ventilation.
Evaluate the use of modular components such as boilers or chillers to optimize part-load efficiency and maintenance requirements.
Evaluate the use of Smart Controls that merge building automation systems with information technology (IT) infrastructures.
Employ an interactive energy management tool that allows you to track and assess energy and water consumption like the Energy Star® Portfolio Manager.
Employ centralized remote meter reading and management to provide accurate analysis of energy use and monitor power quality.
Use a comprehensive, building commissioning plan throughout the life of the project.
Use metering to confirm building energy and environmental performance through the life of the project.
Provide electronic interactive graphic dashboards in prominent locations to educate occupants of their building’s energy and water consumption and highlight sustainable building features.
Deep Energy Retrofits
A deep energy retrofit is a whole-building analysis and construction process that achieves much larger energy cost savings than those of simpler energy retrofits such as upgrading lighting and HVAC equipment. In taking a whole-building approach, deep energy retrofits address many systems at once by combining energy efficient measures such as energy-efficient equipment, air sealing, moisture management, controlled ventilation, insulation, and solar control. Resources available to identify deep energy retrofit design opportunities are available from Rocky Mountain Institute® and Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides are available from the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy.
Sustainability and Energy Security
Energy independence and security are important components of national security and energy strategies. Today, power is mostly generated by massive centralized plants, and electricity moves along transmission lines. Energy independence can be achieved, in part, by minimizing energy consumption through energy conservation, energy efficiency, and by generating energy from local, renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, etc. (see WBDG Distributed Energy Resources, Fuel Cell Technology, Micro-turbines, Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), Daylighting, Passive Solar Heating) Additionally, using distributed energy systems adds to building resiliency as the threats of natural disaster damage become more frequent.
Net Zero Energy Buildings, Campuses and Communities.
The confusion caused by the existence of innumerable definitions of net zero energy has made it difficult to specify and compare the performance of net zero energy buildings around the country. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy in collaboration with the National Institute of Building Sciences recently released a common definition for a zero energy building, also referred to as a “net zero energy” or “zero net energy” building. This common definition for a zero energy building states that a Zero Energy Building is “an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy.” This definition also applies to campuses, portfolios and communities. In addition to providing clarity across the industry, this new DOE publication provides important guidelines for measurement and implementation, specifically explaining how to utilize this definition for building projects.
Combined heat and power (CHP).
Also known as ‘Cogeneration’, is the simultaneous generation of useful mechanical and thermal energy in a single, integrated system. Consider CHP at project onset to increase industrial efficiency and decrease unnecessary fuel consumption. CHP has the ability to divert renewable energy to critical infrastructure.
Per the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) a microgrid is an interconnected set of electricity sources and loads that falls under a common method of control. Microgrids typically integrate small-scale renewable energy generation like photovoltaics (PV) with natural gas turbines and even fuel cells. With the potential disruption of power due to man-caused and weather-related events to critical facilities like hospitals, data centers, and laboratories microgrids can provide islanding to insulate facilities from outages. University campuses and military bases can also benefit from microgrids.
Net Zero Energy Buildings
Executive Order 13693 requires all new Federal buildings that are entering the planning process in 2020 be ‘designed to achieve zero-net-energy by 2030.’ There are also commercial building and residential programs promoting net-zero energy. Examples of commercial, residential and government net-zero energy buildings exist and can provide guidance for the development of future net-zero energy buildings.
The ability of a facility to provide shelter and basic occupant needs during and after disaster events without electric power is becoming a design strategy to consider, particularly in areas of the country where storms and floods have been reoccurring annually or more often. Incorporate facility survivability concepts in the design of critical facilities, including on-site renewable energy sources that will be available to power the building soon after a major storm passes. Checklist for Passive Survivability
Green Walls or Vertical Gardens are beginning to appear as a design element in urban buildings. Be sure they do not conflict with site security requirements including Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED).